Phthalates: Derived from the chemical phthalic acid. Phthalates are used primarily as plasticizers in plastics and in fragrances. They have been banned in some countries, and the use of the ingredient has been discontinued by most manufacturers. In 2004 the European Union [EU] prohibited the manufacture and/or sale of cosmetics containing Phthalates. Additionally, in 2005 the state of California listed DEHP and DBP as chemicals that are known to the state to cause reproductive or developmental toxicity and require label warnings when these substances are present at higher than designated amounts. In 1988, DEHP was listed as a chemical known to the state to cause cancer.
Quaternium-15: A number of studies completed in North America have indicated an increase in the frequency of sensitization among patients tested for sensitization to Quaternium-15. Because of concern about the sensitization potential of Quaternium-15 the CIR Expert Panel set a limit on its use in cosmetics and personal care products. Quaternium-15 is listed as methanamine 3-chloroallylochloride in Annex VI (preservatives which cosmetic products may contain) of the Cosmetics Directive of the European Union and is authorized for use at maximum concentrations of 0.2% in cosmetics and personal care products. If the concentration of released formaldehyde exceeds 0.05% in the finished product, the product must be labeled "contains formaldehyde."
Formaldehyde: Formaldehyde-releasing preservatives have the ability to release Formaldehyde in very small amounts over time. In 1987 IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer, classified Formaldehyde as 2A “probable human carcinogen” for a rare form of nasal cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has similarly classified Formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen under conditions of unusually high or prolonged exposure. In fact, formaldehyde is not typically added directly to cosmetics and personal care products, other than as a component of some nail hardening products. The Working Group voted to recommend reclassification of Formaldehyde as a known human carcinogen. The IARC Working Group based its reclassification decision on new information from studies of persons exposed to Formaldehyde, which in its view provided sufficient evidence to establish that exposure to Formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer in humans under certain circumstances. It also found strong evidence of a link between Formaldehyde and leukemia.
Cocamidopropyl betaine: Delayed T-cell-mediated type IV hypersensitivity reactions to CAPB have been reported, and contact sensitization prevalence is estimated at between 3.0 and 7.2%. The increasing rates of sensitization led to CAPB's being named Allergen of the Year in 2004.
PEG-80 Sorbitan Laurate: Ethoxylated compounds, unless vacuum stripped, are contaminated with 1,4-dioxane. 1,4-dioxane has been identified as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1,4-dioxane is not listed on the ingredient list because it is a contaminant from the manufacturing process, not an ingredient. The FDA encourages manufacturers to remove 1,4-dioxane from products, but there is no requirement that it be done. And, testing reported by the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics did find 1,4-dioxane in Johnson’s Head-to-Toe baby wash at 5.3 to 6.1 parts per million (ppm). In fact, in its FAQ section of its website, Johnson & Johnson admits that “[s]ome of the ingredients in our products may contain 1,4-dioxane as an incidental ingredient at extremely low levels.”
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PubMed @ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
Cosmetic Info @ http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/index.php
Johnson & Johnson @ http://www.johnsonsbaby.com/